Pregnant patients with acute venous thrombosis or a history of thrombosis may need alternative anticoagulation, when heparin intolerance occurs. Only limited data on the use of the heparinoid danaparoid are available in literature. We reviewed the use of danaparoid in 51 pregnancies of 49 patients identified in literature between 1981 and 2004. All patients had developed heparin intolerance (32 due to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, 19 mainly due to heparin-induced skin rashes) and had a current and/or past history of thromboembolic complications. The initial danaparoid dose regimens ranged from 1000 to 7500 U/day administered s.c. or i.v.. The median duration of danaparoid use was 10 weeks. Danaparoid was used until delivery of a healthy infant in 37 pregnancies. In the remaining 14 pregnancies it was stopped earlier, because anticoagulant treatment was no longer required (3/14) or an adverse event led to a treatment discontinuation (11/14). Four maternal bleeding events were recorded during pregnancy, delivery or postpartum, two of them were fatal due to placental problems. Three fetal deaths were recorded, all associated with maternal complications antedating danaparoid use. Danaparoid cross-reactivity was suspected in 4 HIT patients and 5 non-HIT patients with skin reactions and was confirmed serologically in one of the two HIT patients tested. In none of five fetal cord blood- and three maternal breast milksamples anti-Xa activity transfer was observed. In conclusion danaparoid can be used as an alternative antithrombotic agent in pregnant women with high thrombotic risk and intolerance to heparins.
Division of Vascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt/Main, Germany. Lindhoff-Last@em.uni-frankfurt.de