- Peter F Weller, MD, MACP
Peter F Weller, MD, MACP
- Editor-in-Chief — Infectious Diseases
- Section Editor — Tropical Medicine
- William Bosworth Castle Professor of Medicine
- Harvard Medical School
- Professor of Immunology and Infectious Diseases
- Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health
Helminths are multicellular parasites with complex life cycles within and outside of human hosts. The mechanisms of action for many anthelminthic agents remain incompletely understood.
Anthelminthic drugs are used for treatment of symptomatic disease and for mass drug treatment programs in regions with high prevalence of infection and disease [1,2]. In some endemic areas, deworming strategies have been associated with health benefits including improvements in hemoglobin levels, growth and physical fitness, cognitive performance, and nutritional status [3,4]. (See "Mass drug administration for control of parasitic infections".)
In the United States, some agents are available through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Drug Service (telephone 1-404-639-3670).
An overview of anthelminthic therapies will be presented here. Therapeutic and more detailed considerations for specific helminth infections are discussed separately. (See related topics.)
Ivermectin is a semisynthetic derivative of avermectin, which is derived from the soil mold Streptomyces avermitilis. Ivermectin opens glutamate-sensitive chloride channel currents in helminths, and this may be its mechanism of action .
- Drugs for Parasitic Infections, 3rd Ed, The Medical Letter, New Rochelle, NY 2013.
- World Health Organizaton. Preventive chemotherapy in human helminthiasis: Coordinated use of anthelminthic drugs in control interventions: A manual for health professionals and programme managers. WHO, Geneva 2006. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/43545/1/9241547103_eng.pdf (Accessed on May 31, 2017).
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- Millán JC, Mull R, Freise S, et al. The efficacy and tolerability of triclabendazole in Cuban patients with latent and chronic Fasciola hepatica infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2000; 63:264.
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- Cross HF, Haarbrink M, Egerton G, et al. Severe reactions to filarial chemotherapy and release of Wolbachia endosymbionts into blood. Lancet 2001; 358:1873.
- Nitazoxanide (Alinia)--a new anti-protozoal agent. Med Lett Drugs Ther 2003; 45:29.
- Zumaquero-Ríos JL, Sarracent-Pérez J, Rojas-García R, et al. Fascioliasis and intestinal parasitoses affecting schoolchildren in Atlixco, Puebla State, Mexico: epidemiology and treatment with nitazoxanide. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2013; 7:e2553.