Medline ® Abstracts for References 1,8,19
of 'Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion oncogene positive non-small cell lung cancer'
Targeting anaplastic lymphoma kinase in lung cancer.
Shaw AT, Solomon B
Clin Cancer Res. 2011;17(8):2081.
Several decades of cancer research have revealed a pivotal role for tyrosine kinases as key regulators of signaling pathways, controlling cell growth and differentiation. Deregulation of tyrosine kinase-mediated signaling occurs frequently in cancer and is believed to drive the initiation and progression of disease. Chromosomal rearrangements involving the tyrosine kinase anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) occur in a variety of human malignancies including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), anaplastic large cell lymphomas, and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors. The aberrant activation of ALK signaling leads to "oncogene addiction" and marked sensitivity to ALK inhibitors such as crizotinib (PF-02341066). This review focuses on ALK rearrangements in NSCLC, starting with the discovery of the EML4-ALK fusion oncogene, and culminating in the recent validation of ALK as a therapeutic target in patients with ALK-rearranged NSCLC. Current efforts seek to expand the role of ALK kinase inhibition in lung and other cancers and to address the molecular basis for the development of resistance.
Thoracic Oncology Center, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Clinical features and outcome of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer who harbor EML4-ALK.
Shaw AT, Yeap BY, Mino-Kenudson M, Digumarthy SR, Costa DB, Heist RS, Solomon B, Stubbs H, Admane S, McDermott U, Settleman J, Kobayashi S, Mark EJ, Rodig SJ, Chirieac LR, Kwak EL, Lynch TJ, Iafrate AJ
J Clin Oncol. 2009;27(26):4247. Epub 2009 Aug 10.
PURPOSE: The EML4-ALK fusion oncogene represents a novel molecular target in a small subset of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC). To aid in identification and treatment of these patients, we examined the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients who had NSCLC with and without EML4-ALK.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with NSCLC were selected for genetic screening on the basis of two or more of the following characteristics: female sex, Asian ethnicity, never/light smoking history, and adenocarcinoma histology. EML4-ALK was identified by using fluorescent in situ hybridization for ALK rearrangements and was confirmed by immunohistochemistry for ALK expression. EGFR and KRAS mutations were determined by DNA sequencing.
RESULTS: Of 141 tumors screened, 19 (13%) were EML4-ALK mutant, 31 (22%) were EGFR mutant, and 91 (65%) were wild type (WT/WT) for both ALK and EGFR. Compared with the EGFR mutant and WT/WT cohorts, patients with EML4-ALKmutant tumors were significantly younger (P<.001 and P = .005) and were more likely to be men (P = .036 and P = .039). Patients with EML4-ALK-positive tumors, like patients who harbored EGFR mutations, also were more likely to be never/light smokers compared with patients in the WT/WT cohort (P<.001). Eighteen of the 19 EML4-ALK tumors were adenocarcinomas, predominantly the signet ring cell subtype. Among patients with metastatic disease, EML4-ALK positivity was associated with resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Patients in the EML4-ALK cohort and the WT/WT cohort showed similar response rates to platinum-based combination chemotherapy and no difference in overall survival.
CONCLUSION: EML4-ALK defines a molecular subset of NSCLC with distinct clinical characteristics. Patients who harbor this mutation do not benefit from EGFR TKIs and should be directed to trials of ALK-targeted agents.
Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Warren 501c, 55 Fruit St, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
Food and Drug Administration http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2011/202570s000lbl.pdf.
no abstract available