Medline ® Abstracts for References 58,59
of 'Anaphylaxis: Emergency treatment'
Extravasation of Noncytotoxic Drugs: A Review of the Literature.
Le A, Patel S
Ann Pharmacother. 2014 Apr;48(7):870-886. Epub 2014 Apr 8.
OBJECTIVE: Extravasation is a potential complication associated with intravenous therapy administration. Inadvertent leakage of medications with vesicant properties can cause severe tissue necrosis, which can lead to devastating long-term consequences. Recognizing potential agents is an essential step in mitigating the risk of extravasation.
DATA SOURCE: A literature search was carried out using PubMed with the following key words: extravasation, soft tissue injury, phlebitis, and infiltration, from January 1961 through January 2014.
STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: The publications were screened manually and reviewed to identify reports for medications that included synonyms of the International Nonproprietary Name, while excluding antineoplastic agents, radiographic contrast material, investigational or nonmarketed drugs, and animal data, to yield 70 articles. Furthermore, reference citations from publications were also reviewed for relevance and yielded 4 articles.
DATA SYNTHESIS: We discovered 232 cases of extravasation involving 37 agents (in order of frequency): phenytoin,parenteral nutrition, calcium gluconate, potassium chloride, calcium chloride, dopamine, dextrose solutions, epinephrine, sodium bicarbonate, nafcillin, propofol, norepinephrine, mannitol, arginine, promethazine, vancomycin, tetracycline, dobutamine, vasopressin, sodium thiopental, acyclovir, amphotericin, ampicillin, cloxacillin, gentamicin, metronidazole, oxacillin, penicillin, amiodarone, albumin, furosemide, lipids, lorazepam, immunoglobulin, morphine, and sodium valproate. Potential properties contributing to extravasation include the following: pH, osmolarity, diluent, vasoactive properties, and inactive ingredients. Antidotes and supportive care agents used in the management of these cases of extravasation include hyaluronidase, phentolamine, terbutaline, topical anesthetics (such as lidocaine and prilocaine cream), topical antimicrobials (such as silver sulfadiazine and chlorhexidine), topical debridement agents (collagenase ointment), topical steroids, and topical vasodilators (nitroglycerin).
CONCLUSION: Data on the management of noncytotoxic extravasations is sparse, consisting primarily of case reports and anecdotal evidence. Fortunately, this adverse outcome is preventable and identification of vesicant agents plays a pivotal role. The intent of this review is to provide a reference identifying noncytotoxic vesicants and the management of extravasations associated with specific agents.
Stanford Hospital and Clinics, Stanford, CA, USA.
Management of extravasation injuries: a focused evaluation of noncytotoxic medications.
Reynolds PM, MacLaren R, Mueller SW, Fish DN, Kiser TH
Pharmacotherapy. 2014 Jun;34(6):617-32. Epub 2014 Jan 13.
Extravasations are common manifestations of iatrogenic injury that occur in patients requiring intravenous delivery of known vesicants. These injuries can contribute substantially to patient morbidity, cost of therapy, and length of stay. Many different mechanisms are behind the tissue damage during extravasation injuries. In general, extravasations consist of four different subtypes of tissue injury: vasoconstriction, osmotic, pH related, and cytotoxic. Recognition of high-risk patients, appropriate cannulation technique, and monitoring of higher risk materials remain the standard of care for the prevention of extravasation injury. Prompt interdisciplinary action is often necessary for the treatment of extravasation injuries. Knowledge of the mechanism of extravasation-induced tissue injury, agents for reversal, and appropriate nonpharmacologic treatment methods is essential. The best therapeutic agent for treatment of vasopressor extravasation is intradermal phentolamine. Topical vasodilators and intradermal terbutaline may provide relief. Intradermal hyaluronidase has been effective for hyperosmotic extravasations, although its use largely depends on the risk of tissue injury and the severity of extravasation. Among the hyperosmotic agents, calcium extravasation isdistinctive because it may present as an acute tissue injury or may possess delayed clinical manifestations. Extravasation of acidic or basic materials can produce significant tissue damage. Phenytoin is the prototypical basic drug that causes a clinical manifestation known as purple glove syndrome (PGS). This syndrome is largely managed through preventive and conservative treatment measures. Promethazine is acidic and can cause a devastating extravasation, particularly if administered inadvertently through the arteriolar route. Systemic heparin therapy remains the accepted treatment option for intraarteriolar administration of promethazine. Overall, the evidence for managing extravasations due to noncytotoxic medications is nonexistent or limited to case reports. More research is needed to improve knowledge of patient risk, prompt recognition of the extravasation, and time course for tissue injury, and to develop prevention and treatment strategies for extravasation injuries.
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, Colorado; Department of Pharmacy, University of Colorado Hospital, Aurora, Colorado.