Medline ® Abstracts for References 41,42
of 'Anaphylaxis: Emergency treatment'
Epinephrine for First-aid Management of Anaphylaxis.
Sicherer SH, Simons FER, SECTION ON ALLERGY AND IMMUNOLOGY
Pediatrics. 2017;139(3) Epub 2017 Feb 13.
Anaphylaxis is a severe, generalized allergic or hypersensitivity reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death. Epinephrine (adrenaline) can be life-saving when administered as rapidly as possible once anaphylaxis is recognized. This clinical report from the American Academy of Pediatrics is an update of the 2007 clinical report on this topic. It provides information to help clinicians identify patients at risk of anaphylaxis and new information about epinephrine and epinephrine autoinjectors (EAs). The report also highlights the importance of patient and family education about the recognition and management of anaphylaxis in the community. Key points emphasized include the following: (1) validated clinical criteria are available to facilitate prompt diagnosis of anaphylaxis; (2) prompt intramuscular epinephrine injection in the mid-outer thigh reduces hospitalizations, morbidity, and mortality; (3) prescribing EAs facilitates timely epinephrine injection in community settings for patients with a history of anaphylaxis and, if specific circumstances warrant, for some high-risk patients who have not previously experienced anaphylaxis; (4) prescribing epinephrine for infants and young children weighing<15 kg, especially those who weigh 7.5 kg and under, currently presents a dilemma, because the lowest dose available in EAs, 0.15 mg, is a high dose for many infants and some young children; (5) effective management of anaphylaxis in the community requires a comprehensive approach involving children, families, preschools, schools, camps, and sports organizations; and (6) prevention of anaphylaxis recurrences involves confirmation of the trigger, discussion of specific allergen avoidance, allergen immunotherapy (eg, with stinging insect venom, if relevant), and a written, personalized anaphylaxis emergency action plan; and (7) the management of anaphylaxis also involves education of children and supervising adults about anaphylaxis recognition and first-aid treatment.
Professor of Pediatrics, Jaffe Food Allergy Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York; and.
Adequacy of the epinephrine autoinjector needle length in delivering epinephrine to the intramuscular tissues.
Song TT, Nelson MR, Chang JH, Engler RJ, Chowdhury BA
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2005;94(5):539.
BACKGROUND: Epinephrine injected by an autoinjector in the anterolateral aspect of the thigh is the standard of care in the emergency self-treatment of anaphylaxis. In the United States, the autoinjector EpiPen is widely used for the self-treatment of anaphylaxis.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether EpiPen autoinjector, with a needle length of 1.43 cm, is sufficient for intramuscular delivery of epinephrine in men and women.
METHODS: The distance from skin to muscle in the anterolateral aspect of the thigh was measured in 50 men and 50 women who had undergone computed tomography of the thighs for other medical reasons. For each individual, body mass index (BMI; a measure of weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) was also calculated, and the individuals were classified as underweight (BMI,<18.5), normal (BMI, 18.5-24.9), overweight (BMI, 25.0-29.9), and obese (BMI,>or = 30.0) using standard definition.
RESULTS: In the study participants the mean +/- SD distance from skin to muscle was 0.66 +/- 0.47 cm for men and 1.48 +/- 0.72 cm for women (P<.001). One man (obese at a BMI of 42.2) and 21 women (11 obese with a mean BMI of 35.2, 6 overweight with a mean BMI of 30.1, and 4 normal with a mean BMI of 24.5) had a greater distance from skin to muscle than the EpiPen needle length of 1.43 cm.
CONCLUSION: The distance from skin to muscle for the anterolateral aspect of the thigh is higher in women compared with men. This difference suggests that EpiPen may not deliver epinephrine to the intramuscular tissue in many women.
Department of Allergy and Immunology, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC 20307-5001, USA.