Medline ® Abstracts for References 24,55
of 'Anaphylaxis: Emergency treatment'
Emergency treatment of anaphylactic reactions--guidelines for healthcare providers.
Soar J, Pumphrey R, Cant A, Clarke S, Corbett A, Dawson P, Ewan P, Foëx B, Gabbott D, Griffiths M, Hall J, Harper N, Jewkes F, Maconochie I, Mitchell S, Nasser S, Nolan J, Rylance G, Sheikh A, Unsworth DJ, Warrell D, Working Group of the Resuscitation Council (UK)
Resuscitation. 2008;77(2):157. Epub 2008 Mar 20.
*The UK incidence of anaphylactic reactions is increasing. *Patients who have an anaphylactic reaction have life-threatening airway and, or breathing and, or circulation problems usually associated with skin or mucosal changes. *Patients having an anaphylactic reaction should be treated using the Airway, Breathing, Circulation, Disability, Exposure (ABCDE) approach. *Anaphylactic reactions are not easy to study with randomised controlled trials. There are, however, systematic reviews of the available evidence and a wealth of clinical experience to help formulate guidelines. *The exact treatment will depend on the patient's location, the equipment and drugs available, and the skills of those treating the anaphylactic reaction. *Early treatment with intramuscular adrenaline is the treatment of choice for patients having an anaphylactic reaction. *Despite previous guidelines, there is still confusion about the indications, dose and route of adrenaline. *Intravenous adrenaline must only be used in certain specialist settings and only by those skilled and experienced in its use. *All those who are suspected of having had an anaphylactic reaction should be referred to a specialist in allergy. *Individuals who are at high risk of an anaphylactic reaction should carry an adrenaline auto-injector and receive training and support in its use. *There is a need for further research about the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of anaphylactic reactions.
Southmead Hospital, North Bristol NHS Trust, Bristol, UK. Jasmeet.email@example.com
Predictors of Repeat Epinephrine Administration for Emergency Department Patients with Anaphylaxis.
Campbell RL, Bashore CJ, Lee S, Bellamkonda VR, Li JT, Hagan JB, Lohse CM, Bellolio MF
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2015 Jul-Aug;3(4):576-84. Epub 2015 May 29.
BACKGROUND: Risk factors that predict which patients with anaphylaxis might require repeat doses of epinephrine are poorly understood.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with the need for multiple doses of epinephrine during an anaphylactic reaction.
METHODS: Patients were included if they met diagnostic criteria for anaphylaxis on presentation to the emergency department (ED) at our academic medical center between April 2008 and February 2014. Data were collected on allergic history, presenting signs and symptoms, anaphylaxis management, and disposition. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to estimate associations between possible risk factors and the need for multiple doses.
RESULTS: Of 582 ED patients with anaphylaxis, 45 (8%) required multiple doses of epinephrine. By multivariable analysis, factors associated with the need for repeat doses were a history of anaphylaxis (odds ratio [OR], 2.5 [95% CI, 1.3-4.7]; P = .005), the presence of flushing or diaphoresis (OR, 2.4 [95% CI, 1.3-4.5]; P = .007), and the presence of dyspnea (OR, 2.2 [95% CI, 1.0-5.0]; P = .046). Patients who received more than 1 dose were more likely to be admitted to the general medical floor (OR, 2.8 [95% CI, 1.1-7.2]; P = .03) or intensive care unit (OR, 7.6 [95% CI, 3.7-15.6]; P<.001).
CONCLUSION: Patients with a history of anaphylaxis, flushing or diaphoresis, or dyspnea may require multiple doses of epinephrine to treat anaphylactic reactions. Patients who require more than 1 dose are more likely to be admitted to the hospital, thus increasing health care resource utilization.
Department of Emergency Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.