Medline ® Abstract for Reference 19
of 'Anaphylaxis: Emergency treatment'
Epinephrine absorption in adults: intramuscular versus subcutaneous injection.
Simons FE, Gu X, Simons KJ
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001;108(5):871.
We report a prospective, randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled, 6-way crossover study of intramuscular versus subcutaneous injection of epinephrine in young men. Peak plasma epinephrine concentrations were significantly higher (P<.01) after epinephrine was injected intramuscularly into the thigh than after epinephrine was injected intramuscularly or subcutaneously into the upper arm. We recommend intramuscular injection of epinephrine into the thigh as the preferred route and site of injection of this life-saving medication in the initial treatment of anaphylaxis.
Section of Allergy&Clinical Immunology, Department of Pediatrics&Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.