Anaerobes have been encountered in infections at virtually all anatomic sites, although the frequency of recovery is highly variable. This topic will focus on common infections that involve anaerobic flora endogenous to the host.
Histotoxic Clostridial infections are reviewed separately by individual pathogen and/or syndrome (eg, tetanus, botulism, Clostridium difficile infection, gas gangrene, neutropenic enterocolitis due to C. septicum). The history of anaerobes; the composition of normal flora in humans; and the pathophysiology, clinical clues, and recovery of these organisms are also discussed separately. (See "Anaerobic bacteria: History and role in normal human flora" and "Pathophysiology, clinical clues, and recovery of organisms in anaerobic infections".)
CLINICAL CLUES TO ANAEROBIC INFECTION
Clinical clues to anaerobic infection include:
●Polymicrobial flora on Gram stain of exudates