Medline ® Abstract for Reference 75
of 'Ampullary carcinoma: Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and staging'
Patterns and predictors of failure after curative resections of carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater.
Todoroki T, Koike N, Morishita Y, Kawamoto T, Ohkohchi N, Shoda J, Fukuda Y, Takahashi H
Ann Surg Oncol. 2003;10(10):1176.
BACKGROUND: Curative resection does not always equate with long-term survival. The aim was to identify patterns and predictors of failure and independent factors of prognosis after curative resection.
METHODS: Sixty-six patients with ampullary carcinoma who underwent surgical intervention were reviewed. Fifty-nine patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy. Cox regression analysis, log-rank test, Fisher exact test, or chi(2) test was used.
RESULTS: No patient died as a result of surgery; major complications occurred in three, and the 5-year survival rate after curative resection (n = 55) was 52.6%. Significant survival predictors were preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen level; gross tumor appearance; tumor, node, and tumor node metastasis stage; and microscopic lymphatic vessel and venous invasion in the primary tumor. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that lymphatic vessel invasion, tumor, and tumor node metastasis stage were significant independent prognostic factors. No patient experienced locoregional failure alone; all 24 relapsed patients haddistant failure, and six of them had both. The liver was the most frequent metastatic organ, followed by nodes, peritoneum, lung, and bone. The carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen levels and lymphatic vessel and venous invasion were significant predictors of distant failure, and the mean time to relapse was 13 (range, 0.7-33) months.
CONCLUSIONS: Curative resection is associated with significant survival; however, effective systemic adjuvant therapy is needed to prevent distant failure for patients with elevated carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen levels or positive lymphatic vessel or venous invasion. A 3-year follow-up period would be necessary to document relapses.
Departments of Surgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba-Shi, Japan. email@example.com