Two-thirds of American adults drink alcohol, mainly in social situations with friends or family members. For most of them, drinking alcohol is controlled and safe. However, for the 18 million Americans with alcoholism or related problems, drinking is highly dangerous.
Most people have a hard time distinguishing when "normal drinking" becomes problem drinking. How do you know how much is too much, particularly when a small to moderate amount of alcohol might be good for you? (see "Patient information: Risks and benefits of alcohol (Beyond the Basics)").
In general, drinking is considered a problem when it starts to adversely affect a person's personal or professional life, or when the person loses control over his or her drinking (see 'Definitions of drinking problems' below).
This topic will explain how healthcare providers determine if a person has a drinking problem. It also offers some screening tools you can use on yourself or a relative or friend. To learn how alcohol problems are treated, (see "Psychosocial treatment of alcohol use disorder" and "Pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder" and "Medically supervised alcohol withdrawal in the ambulatory setting" and "Clinical management of substance dependence across the continuum of care").
WHO IS AT RISK FOR DRINKING PROBLEMS?
Experts have yet to identify why some people develop problems with alcohol, but they do know that certain factors can increase a person's risk. For instance:
- Alcohol abuse and dependence run in families, and certain genes make people more vulnerable to drinking problems. In fact, people who have a first degree relative (a sibling, parent, or child) who abuses alcohol have three to four times the average risk of developing a drinking problem.
- While problem drinking can affect men and women of all ages and backgrounds, it is more common among men than women and is most common among those aged 18 to 25 .
However, women can have alcohol-related problems at lower drinking levels than men. If a man and a woman of the same weight drink the same amount of alcohol, the woman's blood alcohol concentration will be higher, putting her at greater risk for harm .
- Alcohol abuse is common in people older than 65 and can be especially dangerous for them; alcohol can interact with medications and is responsible for many fall-related injuries.
- In young people, alcohol and drug use are associated with motor vehicle crashes, suicide and homicide . In addition, people who begin drinking at an early age are four times more likely to develop alcoholism than those who begin drinking at or after age 21.
- Having another psychological problem, such as severe anxiety, depression, or personality disorder, increases the risk of abusing alcohol. By some estimates, 37 percent of those with a drinking problem also have a psychiatric condition . That's important because treating other psychiatric problems is often an integral part of overcoming alcohol addiction.
DEFINITIONS OF DRINKING PROBLEMS
Experts use many terms to describe different types of drinking problems. We will describe the terms alcohol intoxication, alcohol dependence (also known as alcoholism), alcohol abuse, problem drinking, and binge drinking.
Alcohol intoxication — Alcohol intoxication occurs when drinking excess alcohol leads to inappropriate behavior and impaired judgment. Being intoxicated can cause slurred speech, loss of coordination, unsteady walking or running, difficulty paying attention or remembering, confusion, or coma.
Alcohol dependence — Alcohol dependence, also known as alcohol addiction or alcoholism, is the most severe type of drinking problem. People with alcohol dependence lose control over their drinking, become preoccupied with alcohol, and are often in denial about their problem.
People with alcohol dependence have a destructive pattern of alcohol use that is associated with three or more of the following :
- Tolerance, meaning that you need larger and larger quantities of alcohol to achieve the same effects you once did with smaller amounts
- Having symptoms of withdrawal, meaning that you experience uncomfortable symptoms when you cut back or stop drinking
- Loss of control over the quantity of alcohol you use (drinking more than you intended)
- Having an ongoing desire to cut down or reduce alcohol use
- Spending an increasing amount of time thinking about, getting, using, or recovering from alcohol
- Neglecting social, occupational, or recreational tasks
- Continuing to drink despite physical and psychological problems
Alcohol addiction can also cause physical symptoms besides tolerance and withdrawal. For instance, alcoholics sometimes have sleep disturbances, trembling, and blackouts or memory lapses following drinking episodes.
Over the long term, alcoholics can develop severe illnesses such as liver disease (alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis), inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), a form of heart disease called alcoholic cardiomyopathy, and neurologic disease (see 'Consequences of drinking problems' below).
Alcohol abuse — People with alcohol abuse have a destructive pattern of alcohol use that leads them to do one or more of the following :
- Fail to meet work, school, or social obligations
- Repeatedly use alcohol even when it might be dangerous to do so, such as while driving
- Develop legal problems related to substance use
- Continue to drink even though alcohol use creates social or interpersonal problems
Problem drinking — Some people do not fit the criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence, but are at risk for accidents and problems resulting from drinking too much. A significant proportion of patients seen in emergency departments or trauma centers for intentional and unintentional injuries are problem drinkers.
Problem drinkers may be moderate drinkers, heavy drinkers, or binge drinkers. The definition of these terms is based on the number of servings of alcohol that the person drinks per occasion and how often the person drinks.
What is one drink? — A standard "drink" in the United States contains about 0.6 fluid ounces or 14 grams of "pure" alcohol (figure 1), and is the equivalent of:
- 12 ounces of regular beer
- 8-9 ounces of malt liquor
- 5 ounces of wine
- 1.5 ounces of 80 proof distilled spirits
These examples may not accurately reflect actual servings, however. A mixed drink, for example, can be the equivalent of one to three or more standard drinks, depending on the recipe. Also, the alcohol content for different types of beer, wine, or malt liquor can vary greatly.
Moderate drinkers — Healthy people who drink moderately have a relatively low risk of developing an alcohol problem. Moderate drinking is defined as:
- Women: No more than one drink per day
- Men: No more than two drinks per day
- People 65 and older: No more than one drink per day
People who stay within these "low-risk" drinking limits can still have problems if they drink too quickly, have health problems, or are taking certain prescription medications. Even moderate amounts of alcohol can impact balance, judgment, and the ability to drive, even in the absence of feeling "buzzed" or "high" .
Heavy drinkers — People who drink heavily have a significantly increased risk of developing alcohol problems. Heavy drinking is defined as:
- Women: More than seven drinks per week or three drinks per occasion
- Men: More than 14 drinks per week or four drinks per occasion
Binge drinkers — People who binge drink also have a significant risk of developing an alcohol problem. Binge drinking is defined as drinking at a single occasion (generally within about two hours):
- Women: Four or more drinks
- Men: Five or more drinks
The binge drinker is able to go days without drinking at all. However, binge drinkers cannot limit their drinking once they have a drink. With increasing heavy drinking days over time, the risk of developing alcohol abuse or dependence grows.
SCREENING AND DIAGNOSIS OF DRINKING PROBLEMS
When trying to determine whether a person has a problem with alcohol, healthcare providers focus on three key things:
- Have you lost control of your drinking?
- Have you developed tolerance or other signs of addiction?
- Has alcohol led to problems such as the loss of a job, legal troubles, or problems in relationships?
Still, even healthcare providers have trouble distinguishing normal from problematic drinking, particularly if the person is reluctant to share information about their drinking.
Screening questionnaires — Providers sometimes use one of several questionnaires that are designed to identify people who may have a drinking problem. Such questionnaires ask specific questions that have been studied and shown to help predict when a person has a problem with alcohol use. In addition, some patients may feel more comfortable providing information about drinking when asked as part of a questionnaire, or knowing that such questions are asked of all patients.
Screening questionnaires are better at detecting alcohol abuse or dependence than questions about the quantity or frequency of drinking. That's important, because alcohol abuse and dependence have less to do with the amount of alcohol a person drinks and more to do with the effects that drinking has on their life.
Screening questionnaires are not intended to establish a diagnosis of alcohol abuse. Rather, they identify people who should be further questioned by their clinician to determine if alcohol is a problem for them, and if they need treatment.
Some screening tools work better than others in specific groups. One of the more universally-applicable tests is described below. Other tests have been designed specifically for college students, women, and pregnant women, among other populations. A more extensive list of screening questionnaires is available (see "Screening for unhealthy use of alcohol and other drugs").
Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test — The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) asks about the amount of alcohol you consume, as well as your experience in using alcohol. A sample version of the AUDIT questionnaire is shown in a figure (form 1). An interactive version is available, as well (calculator 1).
CONSEQUENCES OF DRINKING PROBLEMS
There are a number of serious consequences of drinking alcohol excessively:
- Excessive alcohol consumption is a leading preventable cause of death in the United States.
- Drinking alcohol increases the risk of traffic accidents, suicide, drowning, and other serious injuries.
- Alcohol use continues to be the leading cause of injuries treated in trauma centers and emergency departments .
- Alcohol-related liver disease may lead to end-stage liver disease (cirrhosis) and death.
- Alcohol increases the risk of certain cancers of the mouth, esophagus, throat, liver, and breast.
TREATMENT OF DRINKING PROBLEMS
People who have a drinking problem have a number of treatment options at their disposal, including counseling and medications.
- Counseling often involves meeting with a therapist, counselor, or physician to talk. For some people, brief interventions have been shown to be very successful, especially when combined with medications. Others may benefit from more prolonged counseling.
- The medications used in alcohol use disorders work by blunting the pleasant effects of alcohol, reducing the craving for alcohol, or easing withdrawal symptoms. These drugs are effective and can often help a person to stop drinking.
- In addition to formal treatment, many healthcare providers recommend participating in social support groups, such as Alcoholics Anonymous.
Can I stop drinking on my own? — Many people successfully overcome drinking problems on their own. However, people with alcohol dependence should not attempt to cut down or stop drinking without the help of a healthcare provider. Suddenly reducing alcohol intake can cause life-threatening withdrawal symptoms. Medical supervision is an essential part of safe recovery in this group.
Experts use different terms to describe different types of alcohol use disorders. In general, drinking can be called problematic if it leads to negative consequences in a person's life.
Depending on the severity of the problem, drinking problems can also cause tolerance, physical dependence, and a loss of control over drinking. If left unchecked, problem drinking can lead to illness, bodily harm, and even death. Fortunately, effective treatments are available.
WHERE TO GET MORE INFORMATION
Your healthcare provider is the best source of information for questions and concerns related to your medical problem.
This article will be updated as needed on our Web site (www.uptodate.com/patients). Related topics for patients, as well as selected articles written for healthcare professionals, are also available. Some of the most relevant are listed below.
Patient level information — UpToDate offers two types of patient education materials.
The Basics — The Basics patient education pieces answer the four or five key questions a patient might have about a given condition. These articles are best for patients who want a general overview and who prefer short, easy-to-read materials.
Patient information: Alcohol use — when is drinking a problem? (The Basics)
Patient information: Cirrhosis (The Basics)
Patient information: Alcohol poisoning (The Basics)
Patient information: Controlling your blood pressure through lifestyle (The Basics)
Patient information: Marijuana use and addiction (The Basics)
Beyond the Basics — Beyond the Basics patient education pieces are longer, more sophisticated, and more detailed. These articles are best for patients who want in-depth information and are comfortable with some medical jargon.
Patient information: Risks and benefits of alcohol (Beyond the Basics)
Professional level information — Professional level articles are designed to keep doctors and other health professionals up-to-date on the latest medical findings. These articles are thorough, long, and complex, and they contain multiple references to the research on which they are based. Professional level articles are best for people who are comfortable with a lot of medical terminology and who want to read the same materials their doctors are reading.
Medically supervised alcohol withdrawal in the ambulatory setting
Management of moderate and severe alcohol withdrawal syndromes
Overview of the chronic neurologic complications of alcohol
Overview of the risks and benefits of alcohol consumption
Pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease
Psychosocial treatment of alcohol use disorder
Clinical management of substance dependence across the continuum of care
Pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder
Screening for unhealthy use of alcohol and other drugs
Brief intervention for unhealthy alcohol and other drug use
The following organizations also provide reliable health information.
- National Library of Medicine
- National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)
(www.rethinkingdrinking.niaaa.nih.gov and www.collegedrinkingprevention.gov)
- US Department of Health and Human Services
- World Health Organization
- National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
- Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)