AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma: Clinical manifestations and diagnosis
- Jerome E Groopman, MD
Jerome E Groopman, MD
- Dina and Raphael Recanati Professor of Medicine
- Harvard Medical School
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a vascular tumor that is etiologically associated with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), which is also known as the KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) . (See "Disease associations of human herpesvirus 8 infection".)
The clinical manifestations and diagnosis of AIDS-related KS will be reviewed here. The treatment of AIDS-related KS is discussed separately, as is the classic form of Kaposi sarcoma. (See "AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma: Staging and treatment" and "Classic Kaposi sarcoma: Clinical features, staging, diagnosis, and treatment" and "Classic Kaposi sarcoma: Epidemiology, risk factors, pathology, and molecular pathogenesis".)
EPIDEMIOLOGY AND RISK FACTORS
Epidemiologic forms — There are four epidemiologic forms of KS, all of which have been related to infection with HHV-8. These include:
●AIDS-related or epidemic KS — AIDS-related or epidemic KS is the most common tumor arising in HIV-infected persons. KS is considered an AIDS-defining illness in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines. In the United States, KS was over 20,000 times more common in persons with AIDS than in the general population prior to the widespread use of potent antiretroviral therapy (ART), although its incidence has declined substantially since that time .
●Endemic or African — KS was endemic in all parts of equatorial Africa, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, prior to the HIV epidemic. Since the onset of the HIV epidemic, the incidence of KS has increased dramatically in those regions [3,4].
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- EPIDEMIOLOGY AND RISK FACTORS
- Epidemiologic forms
- Epidemiology of AIDS-related KS
- - Impact of antiretroviral therapy
- Human herpesvirus-8
- Steroids and infection
- CUTANEOUS KS
- Clinical manifestations
- Differential diagnosis
- VISCERAL DISEASE
- Oral cavity
- Gastrointestinal tract
- Respiratory system
- INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINE SYNDROME
- INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS