Advanced sleep-wake phase disorder
- Katherine M Sharkey, MD, PhD
Katherine M Sharkey, MD, PhD
- Associate Professor, University Medicine Sleep Center
- Departments of Medicine and Psychiatry & Human Behavior
- The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University
Advanced sleep-wake phase disorder (ASWPD) is a circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder in which sleep quality and duration are normal but sleep onset and wake times are earlier than desired or earlier than socially acceptable times. Patients often force themselves to stay awake in the evenings but continue to wake up early, thereby accumulating sleep debt and excessive daytime sleepiness.
The clinical features, evaluation, and treatment of ASWPD will be reviewed here. An overview of circadian sleep-wake rhythm disorders and a more general approach to the patient with excessive daytime sleepiness are presented separately. (See "Overview of circadian sleep-wake rhythm disorders" and "Approach to the patient with excessive daytime sleepiness".)
The incidence and prevalence of advanced sleep-wake phase disorder (ASWPD) are not well established. Based on a few large survey studies examining sleep timing and symptoms of ASWPD, the disorder may be more prevalent among older adults and men [1-5].
One study estimated a prevalence of 0.25 to 7 percent among more than 4000 adults aged 20 to 59 years using various definitions of ASWPD derived from a self-administered questionnaire . At least two population-based studies have found that men express more of a preference for later sleep-onset times and shorter sleep durations than women, suggesting that men may be more distressed by a persistent pattern of early sleep than women [5,7].
Clock genes and familial ASWPD — A genetic basis for advanced sleep-wake phase disorder (ASWPD) in some individuals is supported by several well-characterized families with ASWPD inherited in an autosomal-dominant, highly penetrant pattern [8-10].To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information on subscription options, click below on the option that best describes you:
- Schrader H, Bovim G, Sand T. The prevalence of delayed and advanced sleep phase syndromes. J Sleep Res 1993; 2:51.
- Moldofsky H, Musisi S, Phillipson EA. Treatment of a case of advanced sleep phase syndrome by phase advance chronotherapy. Sleep 1986; 9:61.
- Kamei R, Hughes L, Miles L, Dement W. Advanced sleep phase syndrome studied in a time isolation facility. Chronobiologia 1979; 6:115.
- Ando K, Kripke DF, Ancoli-Israel S. Delayed and advanced sleep phase symptoms. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci 2002; 39:11.
- Roenneberg T, Kuehnle T, Pramstaller PP, et al. A marker for the end of adolescence. Curr Biol 2004; 14:R1038.
- Paine SJ, Fink J, Gander PH, Warman GR. Identifying advanced and delayed sleep phase disorders in the general population: a national survey of New Zealand adults. Chronobiol Int 2014; 31:627.
- Tonetti L, Fabbri M, Natale V. Sex difference in sleep-time preference and sleep need: a cross-sectional survey among Italian pre-adolescents, adolescents, and adults. Chronobiol Int 2008; 25:745.
- Jones CR, Campbell SS, Zone SE, et al. Familial advanced sleep-phase syndrome: A short-period circadian rhythm variant in humans. Nat Med 1999; 5:1062.
- Reid KJ, Chang AM, Dubocovich ML, et al. Familial advanced sleep phase syndrome. Arch Neurol 2001; 58:1089.
- Satoh K, Mishima K, Inoue Y, et al. Two pedigrees of familial advanced sleep phase syndrome in Japan. Sleep 2003; 26:416.
- Toh KL, Jones CR, He Y, et al. An hPer2 phosphorylation site mutation in familial advanced sleep phase syndrome. Science 2001; 291:1040.
- Xu Y, Padiath QS, Shapiro RE, et al. Functional consequences of a CKIdelta mutation causing familial advanced sleep phase syndrome. Nature 2005; 434:640.
- Brennan KC, Bates EA, Shapiro RE, et al. Casein kinase iδ mutations in familial migraine and advanced sleep phase. Sci Transl Med 2013; 5:183ra56, 1.
- Xu Y, Toh KL, Jones CR, et al. Modeling of a human circadian mutation yields insights into clock regulation by PER2. Cell 2007; 128:59.
- Tafti M, Dauvilliers Y, Overeem S. Narcolepsy and familial advanced sleep-phase syndrome: molecular genetics of sleep disorders. Curr Opin Genet Dev 2007; 17:222.
- Natale V, Adan A. Season of birth modulates morningness-eveningness preference in humans. Neurosci Lett 1999; 274:139.
- Natale V, Adan A, Chotai J. Further results on the association between morningness-eveningness preference and the season of birth in human adults. Neuropsychobiology 2002; 46:209.
- Strang-Karlsson S, Räikkönen K, Kajantie E, et al. Sleep quality in young adults with very low birth weight--the Helsinki study of very low birth weight adults. J Pediatr Psychol 2008; 33:387.
- Hibbs AM, Storfer-Isser A, Rosen C, et al. Advanced sleep phase in adolescents born preterm. Behav Sleep Med 2014; 12:412.
- Björkqvist J, Paavonen J, Andersson S, et al. Advanced sleep-wake rhythm in adults born prematurely: confirmation by actigraphy-based assessment in the Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults. Sleep Med 2014; 15:1101.
- Yan SS, Wang W. The effect of lens aging and cataract surgery on circadian rhythm. Int J Ophthalmol 2016; 9:1066.
- Erichsen JH, Brøndsted AE, Kessel L. Effect of cataract surgery on regulation of circadian rhythms. J Cataract Refract Surg 2015; 41:1997.
- Hofman MA, Swaab DF. Living by the clock: the circadian pacemaker in older people. Ageing Res Rev 2006; 5:33.
- American Academy of Sleep Medicine. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd ed, American Academy of Sleep Medicine, Darien, IL 2014.
- Wright KPJ, Drake CL, Lockley SW. Diagnostic tools for circadian rhythm sleep disorders. In: Handbook of Sleep Disorders, Kushida C (Ed), Taylor & Francis Group, Philadelphia, PA 2008. p.147.
- Benca RM, Obermeyer WH, Thisted RA, Gillin JC. Sleep and psychiatric disorders. A meta-analysis. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1992; 49:651.
- Khalsa SB, Jewett ME, Cajochen C, Czeisler CA. A phase response curve to single bright light pulses in human subjects. J Physiol 2003; 549:945.
- St Hilaire MA, Gooley JJ, Khalsa SB, et al. Human phase response curve to a 1 h pulse of bright white light. J Physiol 2012; 590:3035.
- Campbell SS, Dawson D, Anderson MW. Alleviation of sleep maintenance insomnia with timed exposure to bright light. J Am Geriatr Soc 1993; 41:829.
- Palmer CR, Kripke DF, Savage HC Jr, et al. Efficacy of enhanced evening light for advanced sleep phase syndrome. Behav Sleep Med 2003; 1:213.
- Auger RR, Burgess HJ, Emens JS, et al. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Intrinsic Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders: Advanced Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (ASWPD), Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (DSWPD), Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Rhythm Disorder (N24SWD), and Irregular Sleep-Wake Rhythm Disorder (ISWRD). An Update for 2015: An American Academy of Sleep Medicine Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Sleep Med 2015; 11:1199.
- Lewy AJ, Bauer VK, Ahmed S, et al. The human phase response curve (PRC) to melatonin is about 12 hours out of phase with the PRC to light. Chronobiol Int 1998; 15:71.
- Zee PC. Melantonin for the treatment of advanced sleep phase disorder. Sleep 2008; 31:923; author reply 925.
- Clock genes and familial ASWPD
- Season of birth and prematurity
- Other contributing factors
- CLINICAL FEATURES
- Diagnostic criteria
- Differential diagnosis
- Bright light therapy
- - Patients who do not respond initially
- Other behavioral interventions
- Role of pharmacotherapy
- Driving safety
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS