Medline ® Abstracts for References 13-15
of 'Advance care planning and advance directives'
Associations between end-of-life discussions, patient mental health, medical care near death, and caregiver bereavement adjustment.
Wright AA, Zhang B, Ray A, Mack JW, Trice E, Balboni T, Mitchell SL, Jackson VA, Block SD, Maciejewski PK, Prigerson HG
CONTEXT: Talking about death can be difficult. Without evidence that end-of-life discussions improve patient outcomes, physicians must balance their desire to honor patient autonomy against a concern of inflicting psychological harm.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether end-of-life discussions with physicians are associated with fewer aggressive interventions.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A US multisite, prospective, longitudinal cohort study of patients with advanced cancer and their informal caregivers (n = 332 dyads), September 2002-February 2008. Patients were followed up from enrollment to death, a median of 4.4 months later. Bereaved caregivers' psychiatric illness and quality of life was assessed a median of 6.5 months later.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Aggressive medical care (eg, ventilation, resuscitation) and hospice in the final week of life. Secondary outcomes included patients' mental health and caregivers' bereavement adjustment.
RESULTS: One hundred twenty-three of 332 (37.0%) patients reported having end-of-life discussions before baseline. Such discussions were not associated with higher rates of major depressive disorder (8.3% vs 5.8%; adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-3.32), or more worry (mean McGill score, 6.5 vs 7.0; P = .19). After propensity-score weighted adjustment, end-of-life discussions were associated with lower rates of ventilation (1.6% vs 11.0%; adjusted OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.08-0.83), resuscitation (0.8% vs 6.7%; adjusted OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.03-0.80), ICU admission (4.1% vs 12.4%; adjusted OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.14-0.90), and earlier hospice enrollment (65.6% vs 44.5%; adjusted OR, 1.65;95% CI, 1.04-2.63). In adjusted analyses, more aggressive medical care was associated with worse patient quality of life (6.4 vs 4.6; F = 3.61, P = .01) and higher risk of major depressive disorder in bereaved caregivers (adjusted OR, 3.37; 95% CI, 1.12-10.13), whereas longer hospice stays were associated with better patient quality of life (mean score, 5.6 vs 6.9; F = 3.70, P = .01). Better patient quality of life was associated with better caregiver quality of life at follow-up (beta = .20; P = .001).
CONCLUSIONS: End-of-life discussions are associated with less aggressive medical care near death and earlier hospice referrals. Aggressive care is associated with worse patient quality of life and worse bereavement adjustment.
Department of Medical Oncology and Center for Psycho-Oncology and Palliative Care Research, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 550 Shields Warren, 44 Binney St, Boston, MA 02115, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Association between advance directives and quality of end-of-life care: a national study.
Teno JM, Gruneir A, Schwartz Z, Nanda A, Wetle T
J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007;55(2):189.
OBJECTIVES: To examine the role of advance directives (ADs) 10 years after the Patient Self-Determination Act.
DESIGN: Mortality follow-back survey.
SETTING: People who died in a nursing home, hospital, or at home.
PARTICIPANTS: Bereaved family member or other knowledgeable informant.
MEASUREMENTS: Telephone interviewers that asked about the use of written ADs, use of life-sustaining treatment, and quality of care by asking whether staff provided desired symptom relief, treated the dying with respect, supported shared decision-making, coordinated care, and provided family with the needed information and emotional support.
RESULTS: Of the 1,587 people who died, 70.8% had an AD. Persons who died athome with hospice or in a nursing home were more likely to have an AD. In addition, those with an AD were less likely to have a feeding tube (17% vs 27%) or use a respirator in the last month of life (11.8% vs 22.0%). Bereaved family members who reported that the decedent did not have an AD were more likely to report concerns with physician communication (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.1-1.6) and with being informed about what to expect (AOR=1.2, 95% CI=1.0-1.3). No statistically significant differences were observed in other outcomes. Even in those with an AD, important quality concerns remained; one in four reported an unmet need in pain, one in two reported inadequate emotional support for the patient, and one in three stated inadequate family emotional support.
CONCLUSION: Bereaved family member report of completion of an AD was associated with greater use of hospice and fewer reported concerns with communication, yet important opportunities remain to improve the quality of end-of-life care.
Center for Gerontology and Health Care Research, Brown Medical School, Providence, Rhode Island, USA. Joan_Teno@brown.edu
Silvester W, Blackhall LJ, Stickland E. Final Evaluation Report of the Community Implementation of the Respecting Patient Choices Program. http://www.health.gov.au/internet/nhhrc/publishing.nsf/Content/018-wilsiletal/$FILE/018%20William%20Silvester%20et%20al%20Submission%20B.pdf (Accessed on December 31, 2012).
no abstract available