Medline ® Abstracts for References 13,18
of 'Advance care planning and advance directives'
Association between advance directives and quality of end-of-life care: a national study.
Teno JM, Gruneir A, Schwartz Z, Nanda A, Wetle T
J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007;55(2):189.
OBJECTIVES: To examine the role of advance directives (ADs) 10 years after the Patient Self-Determination Act.
DESIGN: Mortality follow-back survey.
SETTING: People who died in a nursing home, hospital, or at home.
PARTICIPANTS: Bereaved family member or other knowledgeable informant.
MEASUREMENTS: Telephone interviewers that asked about the use of written ADs, use of life-sustaining treatment, and quality of care by asking whether staff provided desired symptom relief, treated the dying with respect, supported shared decision-making, coordinated care, and provided family with the needed information and emotional support.
RESULTS: Of the 1,587 people who died, 70.8% had an AD. Persons who died athome with hospice or in a nursing home were more likely to have an AD. In addition, those with an AD were less likely to have a feeding tube (17% vs 27%) or use a respirator in the last month of life (11.8% vs 22.0%). Bereaved family members who reported that the decedent did not have an AD were more likely to report concerns with physician communication (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.1-1.6) and with being informed about what to expect (AOR=1.2, 95% CI=1.0-1.3). No statistically significant differences were observed in other outcomes. Even in those with an AD, important quality concerns remained; one in four reported an unmet need in pain, one in two reported inadequate emotional support for the patient, and one in three stated inadequate family emotional support.
CONCLUSION: Bereaved family member report of completion of an AD was associated with greater use of hospice and fewer reported concerns with communication, yet important opportunities remain to improve the quality of end-of-life care.
Center for Gerontology and Health Care Research, Brown Medical School, Providence, Rhode Island, USA. Joan_Teno@brown.edu
Health care costs in the last week of life: associations with end-of-life conversations.
Zhang B, Wright AA, Huskamp HA, Nilsson ME, Maciejewski ML, Earle CC, Block SD, Maciejewski PK, Prigerson HG
Arch Intern Med. 2009 Mar;169(5):480-8.
BACKGROUND: Life-sustaining medical care of patients with advanced cancer at the end of life (EOL) is costly. Patient-physician discussions about EOL wishes are associated with lower rates of intensive interventions.
METHODS: Funded by the National Institute of Mental Health and the National Cancer Institute, Coping With Cancer is a longitudinal multi-institutional study of 627 patients with advanced cancer. Patients were interviewed at baseline and were followed up through death. Costs for intensive care unit and hospital stays, hospice care, and life-sustaining procedures (eg, mechanical ventilator use and resuscitation) received in the last week of life were aggregated. Generalized linear models were applied to test for cost differences in EOL care. Propensity score matching was used to reduce selection biases.
RESULTS: Of 603 participants, 188 (31.2%) reported EOL discussions at baseline. After propensity score matching, the remaining 415 patients did not differ in sociodemographic characteristics, recruitment sites, illness acknowledgment, or treatment preferences. Further analyses, adjusted by quintiles of propensity scores and significant confounders, revealed that the mean (SE) aggregate costs of care (in 2008 US dollars) were $1876 ($177) for patients who reported EOL discussions compared with $2917 ($285) for patients who did not, a cost difference of $1041 (35.7% lower among patients who reported EOL discussions) (P =.002). Patients with higher costs had worse quality of death in their final week (Pearson production moment correlation partial r = -0.17, P =.006).
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with advanced cancer who reported having EOL conversations with physicians had significantly lower health care costs in their final week of life. Higher costs were associated with worse quality of death.
Center for Psycho-Oncology and Palliative Care Research, Boston, MA 02115, USA.