Medline ® Abstracts for References 1,9,11,12
of 'Advance care planning and advance directives'
The impact of advance care planning on end of life care in elderly patients: randomised controlled trial.
Detering KM, Hancock AD, Reade MC, Silvester W
BMJ. 2010;340:c1345. Epub 2010 Mar 23.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of advance care planning on end of life care in elderly patients.
DESIGN: Prospective randomised controlled trial.
SETTING: Single centre study in a university hospital in Melbourne, Australia.
PARTICIPANTS: 309 legally competent medical inpatients aged 80 or more and followed for six months or until death.
INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomised to receive usual care or usual care plus facilitated advance care planning. Advance care planning aimed to assist patients to reflect on their goals, values, and beliefs; to consider future medical treatment preferences; to appoint a surrogate; and to document their wishes.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was whether a patient's end of life wishes were known and respected. Other outcomes included patient and family satisfaction with hospital stay and levels of stress, anxiety, and depression in relatives of patients who died.
RESULTS: 154 of the 309 patients were randomised to advance care planning, 125 (81%) received advance care planning, and 108 (84%) expressed wishes or appointed a surrogate, or both. Of the 56 patients who died by six months, end of life wishes were much more likely to be known and followed in the intervention group (25/29, 86%) compared with the control group (8/27, 30%; P<0.001). In the intervention group, family members of patients who died had significantly less stress (intervention 5, control 15; P<0.001), anxiety (intervention 0, control 3; P=0.02), and depression (intervention 0, control 5; P=0.002) than those of the control patients. Patient and family satisfaction was higher in the intervention group.
CONCLUSIONS: Advance care planning improves end of life care and patient and family satisfaction and reduces stress, anxiety, and depression in surviving relatives. Trial registration Australian New Zealand clinical trials registry ACTRN12608000539336.
Respecting Patient Choices Program, Austin Health, PO Box 555, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia. Karen.firstname.lastname@example.org
Advance directives and outcomes of surrogate decision making before death.
Silveira MJ, Kim SY, Langa KM
N Engl J Med. 2010;362(13):1211.
BACKGROUND: Recent discussions about health care reform have raised questions regarding the value of advance directives.
METHODS: We used data from survey proxies in the Health and Retirement Study involving adults 60 years of age or older who had died between 2000 and 2006 to determine the prevalence of the need for decision making and lost decision-making capacity and to test the association between preferences documented in advance directives and outcomes of surrogate decision making.
RESULTS: Of 3746 subjects, 42.5% required decision making, of whom 70.3% lacked decision-making capacity and 67.6% of those subjects, in turn, had advance directives. Subjects who had living wills were more likely to want limited care (92.7%) or comfort care (96.2%) than all care possible (1.9%); 83.2% of subjects who requested limited care and 97.1% of subjects who requested comfort care received care consistent with their preferences. Among the 10 subjects who requested all care possible, only 5 received it; however, subjects who requested all care possible were far more likely to receive aggressive care as compared with those who did not request it (adjusted odds ratio, 22.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.45 to 115.00). Subjects with living wills were less likely to receive all care possible (adjusted odds ratio, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.56) than were subjects without living wills. Subjects who had assigned a durable power of attorney for health care were less likely to die in a hospital (adjusted odds ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.93) or receive all care possible (adjusted odds ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.86) than were subjects who had not assigned a durable power of attorney for health care.
CONCLUSIONS: Between 2000 and 2006, many elderly Americans needed decision making near the end of life at a time when most lacked the capacity to make decisions. Patients who had prepared advance directives received care that was strongly associated with their preferences. These findings support the continued use of advance directives.
Veterans Affairs Center for Clinical Management Research, and Division of General Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA. email@example.com
Death and end-of-life planning in one midwestern community.
Hammes BJ, Rooney BL
Arch Intern Med. 1998 Feb;158(4):383-90.
BACKGROUND: The major health care organizations in a geographically defined area implemented an extensive, collaborative advance directive education program approximately 2 years prior to this study.
OBJECTIVES: To determine for a geographically defined population the prevalence and type of end-of-life planning and the relationship between end-of-life plans and decisions in all local health care organizations, including hospitals, medical clinics, long-term care facilities, home health agencies, hospices, and the county health department.
METHODS: For more than 11 months, end-of-life planning and decisions were retrospectively studied for all adult decedents residing in areas within 5 ZIP codes. These decedents were mentally capable in the 10 years prior to death and died while under the care of the participating health care organizations. Data were collected from medical records and death certificates. Treating physicians and decedent proxies were also contacted for interviews.
RESULTS: A total of 540 decedents were included in this study. The prevalence of written advance directives was 85%. Almost all these documents (95%) were in the decedent's medical record. The median time between advance directive documentation and death was 1.2 years. Almost all advance directive documents requested that treatment be forgone as death neared. Treatment was forgone in 98% of the deaths. Treatment preferences expressed in advance directives seemed to be consistently followed while making end-of-life decisions.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a more complete picture of death, end-of-life planning, and decision making in a geographic area where an extensive advance directive education program exists. It indicates that advance planning can be prevalent and can effectively guide end-of-life decisions.
Gundersen Lutheran Medical Center, La Crosse, Wisconsin, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Associations between end-of-life discussions, patient mental health, medical care near death, and caregiver bereavement adjustment.
Wright AA, Zhang B, Ray A, Mack JW, Trice E, Balboni T, Mitchell SL, Jackson VA, Block SD, Maciejewski PK, Prigerson HG
CONTEXT: Talking about death can be difficult. Without evidence that end-of-life discussions improve patient outcomes, physicians must balance their desire to honor patient autonomy against a concern of inflicting psychological harm.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether end-of-life discussions with physicians are associated with fewer aggressive interventions.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A US multisite, prospective, longitudinal cohort study of patients with advanced cancer and their informal caregivers (n = 332 dyads), September 2002-February 2008. Patients were followed up from enrollment to death, a median of 4.4 months later. Bereaved caregivers' psychiatric illness and quality of life was assessed a median of 6.5 months later.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Aggressive medical care (eg, ventilation, resuscitation) and hospice in the final week of life. Secondary outcomes included patients' mental health and caregivers' bereavement adjustment.
RESULTS: One hundred twenty-three of 332 (37.0%) patients reported having end-of-life discussions before baseline. Such discussions were not associated with higher rates of major depressive disorder (8.3% vs 5.8%; adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-3.32), or more worry (mean McGill score, 6.5 vs 7.0; P = .19). After propensity-score weighted adjustment, end-of-life discussions were associated with lower rates of ventilation (1.6% vs 11.0%; adjusted OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.08-0.83), resuscitation (0.8% vs 6.7%; adjusted OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.03-0.80), ICU admission (4.1% vs 12.4%; adjusted OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.14-0.90), and earlier hospice enrollment (65.6% vs 44.5%; adjusted OR, 1.65;95% CI, 1.04-2.63). In adjusted analyses, more aggressive medical care was associated with worse patient quality of life (6.4 vs 4.6; F = 3.61, P = .01) and higher risk of major depressive disorder in bereaved caregivers (adjusted OR, 3.37; 95% CI, 1.12-10.13), whereas longer hospice stays were associated with better patient quality of life (mean score, 5.6 vs 6.9; F = 3.70, P = .01). Better patient quality of life was associated with better caregiver quality of life at follow-up (beta = .20; P = .001).
CONCLUSIONS: End-of-life discussions are associated with less aggressive medical care near death and earlier hospice referrals. Aggressive care is associated with worse patient quality of life and worse bereavement adjustment.
Department of Medical Oncology and Center for Psycho-Oncology and Palliative Care Research, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 550 Shields Warren, 44 Binney St, Boston, MA 02115, USA. email@example.com