Medline ® Abstract for Reference 38
of 'Adjuvant therapy for resected stage III (node-positive) colon cancer'
Phase III study of fluorouracil, leucovorin, and levamisole in high-risk stage II and III colon cancer: final report of Intergroup 0089.
Haller DG, Catalano PJ, Macdonald JS, O'Rourke MA, Frontiera MS, Jackson DV, Mayer RJ
J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(34):8671.
PURPOSE: In 1990, fluorouracil (FU) plus levamisole for 1 year became standard adjuvant treatment for patients with high-risk stages II and III colon cancer. Intergroup (INT) 0089 assessed the relative contributions of leucovorin and levamisole in such patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1988 to 1992, 3,794 patients were randomly assigned. Experimental treatment consisted of one of three chemotherapy regimens: the low-dose leucovorin plus FU (Mayo Clinic; LDLV) regimen, the high-dose leucovorin plus FU (Roswell Park; HDLV) regimen, and the low-dose leucovorin plus levamisole plus FU (LDLV plus LEV) regimen, each administered for 30 to 32 weeks. The control arm was levamisole plus FU (LEV) for 1 year.
RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 10 years, of 3,561 eligible patients, 1,691 (47%) have died and 1,330 (37%) have experienced disease recurrence; 137 (10%) of those experiencing recurrence are still alive. A total of 481 patients (13%) died without evidence of recurrence, and 1,723 (48%) are alive and disease free. Although there were toxicity differences among the four arms, none was statistically superior in disease-free or overall survival.
CONCLUSION: The 6- to 8-month regimens of LDLV and HDLV without levamisole used in this trial, rather than the previous standard regimen of 12 months of LEV, have become widely used. INT-0089 has long-term follow-up of the largest clinical trial of patients with high-risk colon cancer, documenting not only the durability of the treatment effects, but also the natural history of patients with high-risk colon cancer, and analyses of treatment based on age, race, and comorbid conditions such as obesity, diabetes, and second primary cancers.
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org