UpToDate
Official reprint from UpToDate®
www.uptodate.com ©2017 UpToDate, Inc. and/or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Medline ® Abstracts for References 7-13

of 'Adjuvant chemotherapy for HER2-negative breast cancer'

7
TI
Effects of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy for early breast cancer on recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials.
AU
Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group (EBCTCG)
SO
Lancet. 2005;365(9472):1687.
 
BACKGROUND: Quinquennial overviews (1985-2000) of the randomised trials in early breast cancer have assessed the 5 year and 10-year effects of various systemic adjuvant therapies on breast cancer recurrence and survival. Here, we report the 10-year and 15-year effects.
METHODS: Collaborative meta-analyses were undertaken of 194 unconfounded randomised trials of adjuvant chemotherapy or hormonal therapy that began by 1995. Many trials involved CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, fluorouracil), anthracycline-based combinations such as FAC (fluorouracil, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide) or FEC (fluorouracil, epirubicin, cyclophosphamide), tamoxifen, or ovarian suppression: none involved taxanes, trastuzumab, raloxifene, or modern aromatase inhibitors.
FINDINGS: Allocation to about 6 months of anthracycline-based polychemotherapy (eg, with FAC or FEC) reduces the annual breast cancer death rate by about 38% (SE 5) for women younger than 50 years of age when diagnosed and by about 20% (SE 4) for those of age 50-69 years when diagnosed, largely irrespective of the use of tamoxifen and of oestrogen receptor (ER) status, nodal status, or other tumour characteristics. Such regimens are significantly (2p=0.0001 for recurrence, 2p<0.00001 for breast cancer mortality) more effective than CMF chemotherapy. Few women of age 70 years or older entered these chemotherapy trials. For ER-positive disease only, allocation to about 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen reduces the annual breast cancer death rate by 31% (SE 3), largely irrespective of the use of chemotherapy and of age (<50, 50-69,>or =70 years), progesterone receptor status, or other tumour characteristics. 5 years is significantly (2p<0.00001 for recurrence, 2p=0.01 for breast cancer mortality) more effective than just 1-2 years of tamoxifen. For ER-positive tumours, the annual breast cancer mortality rates are similar during years 0-4 and 5-14, as are the proportional reductions in them by 5 years of tamoxifen, so the cumulative reduction in mortality is more than twice as big at 15 years as at 5 years after diagnosis. These results combine six meta-analyses: anthracycline-based versus no chemotherapy (8000 women); CMF-based versus no chemotherapy (14,000); anthracycline-based versus CMF-based chemotherapy (14,000); about 5 years of tamoxifen versus none (15,000); about 1-2 years of tamoxifen versus none (33,000); and about 5 years versus 1-2 years of tamoxifen (18,000). Finally, allocation to ovarian ablation or suppression (8000 women) also significantly reduces breast cancer mortality, but appears to do so only in the absence of other systemic treatments. For middle-aged women with ER-positive disease (the commonest type of breast cancer), the breast cancer mortality rate throughout the next 15 years would be approximately halved by 6 months of anthracycline-based chemotherapy (with a combination such as FAC or FEC) followed by 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen. For, if mortality reductions of 38% (age<50 years) and 20% (age 50-69 years) from such chemotherapy were followed by a further reduction of 31% from tamoxifen in the risks that remain, the final mortality reductions would be 57% and 45%, respectively (and, the trial resultscould well have been somewhat stronger if there had been full compliance with the allocated treatments). Overall survival would be comparably improved, since these treatments have relatively small effects on mortality from the aggregate of all other causes.
INTERPRETATION: Some of the widely practicable adjuvant drug treatments that were being tested in the 1980s, which substantially reduced 5-year recurrence rates (but had somewhat less effect on 5-year mortality rates), also substantially reduce 15-year mortality rates. Further improvements in long-term survival could well be available from newer drugs, or better use of older drugs.
AD
PMID
8
 
 
Adjuvant! Breast Cancer Help Files. www.adjuvantonline.com/index.jsp (Accessed on October 14, 2011).
 
no abstract available
9
TI
Computer program to assist in making decisions about adjuvant therapy for women with early breast cancer.
AU
Ravdin PM, Siminoff LA, Davis GJ, Mercer MB, Hewlett J, Gerson N, Parker HL
SO
J Clin Oncol. 2001;19(4):980.
 
PURPOSE: The goal of the computer program Adjuvant! is to allow health professionals and their patients with early breast cancer to make more informed decisions about adjuvant therapy.
METHODS: Actuarial analysis was used to project outcomes of patients with and without adjuvant therapy based on estimates of prognosis largely derived from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results data and estimates of the efficacy of adjuvant therapy based on the 1998 overviews of randomized trials of adjuvant therapy. These estimates can be refined using the Prognostic Factor Impact Calculator, which uses a Bayesian method to make adjustments based on relative risks conferred and prevalence of positive test results.
RESULTS: From the entries of patient information (age, menopausal status, comorbidity estimate) and tumor staging and characteristics (tumor size, number of positive axillary nodes, estrogen receptor status), baseline prognostic estimates are made. Estimates for the efficacy of endocrine therapy (5 years of tamoxifen) and of polychemotherapy (cyclophosphamide/methotrexate/fluorouracil-like regimens, or anthracycline-based therapy, or therapy based on both an anthracycline and a taxane) can then be used to project outcomes presented in both numerical and graphical formats. Outcomes for overall survival and disease-free survival and the improvement seen in clinical trials, are reasonably modeled by Adjuvant!, although an ideal validation for all patient subsets with all treatment options is not possible. Additional speculative estimates of years of remaining life expectancy and long-term survival curves can also be produced. Help files supply general information about breast cancer. The program's Internet links supply national treatment guidelines, cooperative group trial options, and other related information.
CONCLUSION: The computer program Adjuvant! can play practical and educational roles in clinical settings.
AD
Division of Oncology, University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio, TX 78284, USA. pravdin@swog.org
PMID
10
TI
Decision-making in early breast cancer: guidelines and decision tools.
AU
Baum M, Ravdin PM
SO
Eur J Cancer. 2002;38(6):745.
 
The meta-analysis of trials of adjuvant systemic therapy for early breast cancer provides robust information on the impact of both cytotoxic chemotherapy and tamoxifen on relapse-free and overall survival to 15 years from diagnosis. These data are described in terms of relative risk reduction and are not meant to be viewed as a prescription for therapy. To translate relative risk reductions into absolute benefits for the individual patient and then trade off the gains against the long-term and short-term side-effects and toxicities is a highly complex process for the clinician, and current guidelines are formatted in such a way that they fail to use current information in a way that allows a quantitative assessment of the benefits and risks of adjuvant therapy. This review article explores current guidelines and describes some aids that may be used to help inform women about their treatment options for early breast cancer.
AD
CRC/UCL Cancer Trials Centre, Stephenson House, 158-160 North Gower Street, London NWI 2ND, UK. m.baum@ctc.ucl.ac.uk
PMID
11
TI
Prognosis and treatment of patients with breast tumors of one centimeter or less and negative axillary lymph nodes.
AU
Fisher B, Dignam J, Tan-Chiu E, Anderson S, Fisher ER, Wittliff JL, Wolmark N
SO
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001;93(2):112.
 
BACKGROUND: Uncertainty about prognosis and treatment of axillary lymph node-negative patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative or ER-positive invasive breast tumors of 1 cm or less prompted the analysis of data from five National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project randomized clinical trials.
METHODS: Two hundred thirty-five patients with ER-negative tumors and 1024 patients with ER-positive tumors were identified in these trials. Patients with ER-negative tumors received surgery alone or surgery and chemotherapy. Patients with ER-positive tumors received surgery alone; surgery and tamoxifen; or surgery, tamoxifen, and chemotherapy. End points were relapse-free survival (RFS), event-free survival, and overall survival. A result was considered to be statistically significant with a P value of.05 or less; all statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: The 8-year RFS of women with ER-negative tumors who received surgery alone or with chemotherapy was 81% and 90%, respectively (P = .06). Survival was similar in both groups (93% and 91%; P = .65).The 8-year RFS of women with ER-positive tumors was 86% after surgery alone, 93% when tamoxifen was added (P = .01), and 95% after the addition of tamoxifen and chemotherapy (P = .07 compared with tamoxifen). Survival in the three groups was 90%, 92% (P = .41), and 97%, respectively. The difference between the latter two groups was significant (P = .01). Regardless of ER status or treatment, overall mortality was 8%; one half of the deaths were related to breast cancer. Several covariates affected the risk of recurrence in ER-negative and ER-positive patients. Risk was greater in women with tumors of 1 cm than in those with tumors of less than 1 cm, in women aged 49 years or younger than in those aged 50 years or older, and in women with infiltrating ductal or lobular carcinoma than in those with other histologic tumor types.
CONCLUSIONS: Chemotherapy and/or tamoxifen should be considered for the treatment of women with ER-negative or ER-positive tumors of 1 cm or less and negative axillary lymph nodes.
AD
B. Fisher, National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP), Pittsburgh, PA, USA. bernard.fisher@nsabp.org
PMID
12
TI
Pathological prognostic factors in stage I (T1N0M0) and stage II (T1N1M0) breast carcinoma: a study of 644 patients with median follow-up of 18 years.
AU
Rosen PP, Groshen S, Saigo PE, Kinne DW, Hellman S
SO
J Clin Oncol. 1989;7(9):1239.
 
Prognostic factors have been examined in 644 patients with tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage T1 breast carcinoma treated by mastectomy and followed for a median of 18.2 years. Overall, 148 patients (23%) died of recurrent breast carcinoma. Eighteen (3%) were alive with recurrent disease and 478 (74%) were alive or died of other causes without recurrence. Unfavorable clinicopathologic features were larger tumor size (1.1 to 2.0 cm v less than or equal to 1 cm), perimenopausal menstrual status, the number of axillary lymph node metastases, poorly differentiated grade, presence of lymphatic tumor emboli (LI) in breast tissue near the primary tumor, blood vessel invasion (BVI), and an intense lymphoplasmacytic reaction around the tumor. Median survival after recurrence for the entire series was 2 years. This was not significantly influenced by tumor size, the number of axillary nodal metastases, the type of treatment for recurrence, or the interval to recurrence. The proportions surviving 5 and 10 years after recurrence were 17% and 5%, respectively. Among T1N0M0 cases, the chance of a local recurrence was 2.8% within 20 years. Median survival of T1N0M0 cases after local recurrence (4.5 years) was significantly longer than after systemic recurrence (1.5 years). A similar trend (3.7 v 2.0 years), not statistically significant, was seen in T1N1M0 patients, whohad a 6.5% chance of local recurrence within 20 years. Median survival following systemic recurrence detected 10 or more years after diagnosis in T1N0M0 and in T1N1M0 patients was significantly longer than the median survival for systemic recurrences found in the first decade of follow-up. This difference did not apply following local recurrence in either T1N0M0 or T1N1M0 cases. It is evident that patients with T1 breast carcinoma can be subdivided into differing prognostic groups and this must be taken into account when considering the role of adjuvant chemotherapy for stage I disease. Systemic adjuvant treatment may prove to be beneficial for patients with unfavorable prognostic factors, while women with an especially low risk for recurrence (eg, T1N0M0 tumor 1.0 cm or less) might be spared such treatment.
AD
Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021.
PMID
13
TI
Population-based validation of the prognostic model ADJUVANT! for early breast cancer.
AU
Olivotto IA, Bajdik CD, Ravdin PM, Speers CH, Coldman AJ, Norris BD, Davis GJ, Chia SK, Gelmon KA
SO
J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(12):2716.
 
PURPOSE: Adjuvant! (www.adjuvantonline.com) is a web-based tool that predicts 10-year breast cancer outcomes with and without adjuvant systemic therapy, but it has not been independently validated.
METHODS: Using the British Columbia Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit (BCOU) database, demographic, pathologic, staging, and treatment data on 4,083 women diagnosed between 1989 and 1993 in British Columbia with T1-2, N0-1, M0 breast cancer were abstracted and entered into Adjuvant! to calculate predicted 10-year overall survival (OS), breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS), and event-free survival (EFS) for each patient. Individual BCOU observed outcomes at 10 years were independently determined. Predicted and observed outcomes were compared.
RESULTS: Across all 4,083 patients, 10-year predicted and observed outcomes were within 1% for OS, BCSS, and EFS (all P>.05). Predicted and observed outcomes were within 2% for most demographic, pathologic, and treatment-defined subgroups. Adjuvant! overestimated OS, BCSS, and EFS in women younger than age 35 years (predicted-observed = 8.6%, 9.6%, and 13.6%, respectively; all P<.001) or with lymphatic or vascular invasion (LVI; predicted-observed = 3.6%, 3.8%, and 4.2%, respectively; all P<.05); these two prognostic factors were not automatically incorporated within the Adjuvant! algorithm. After adjusting for the distribution of LVI, using the prognostic factor impact calculator in Adjuvant!, 10-year predicted and observed outcomes were no longer significantly different.
CONCLUSION: Adjuvant! performed reliably. Patients younger than age 35 or with known additional adverse prognostic factors such as LVI require adjustment of risks to derive reliable predictions of prognosis without adjuvant systemic therapy and the absolute benefits of adjuvant systemic therapy.
AD
Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, Vancouver Island Centre, 2410 Lee Avenue, Victoria, BC V8R 6V5, Canada. iolivott@bccancer.bc.ca
PMID