Medline ® Abstracts for References 35-37
of 'Adjuvant chemotherapy for HER2-negative breast cancer'
Fifteen-year median follow-up results after neoadjuvant doxorubicin, followed by mastectomy, followed by adjuvant cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil (CMF) followed by radiation for stage III breast cancer: a phase II trial (CALGB 8944).
Kimmick GG, Cirrincione C, Duggan DB, Bhalla K, Robert N, Berry D, Norton L, Lemke S, Henderson IC, Hudis C, Winer E, Cancer and Leukemia Group B
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009;113(3):479. Epub 2008 Feb 28.
PURPOSE: To describe long-term results of a multimodality strategy for stage III breast cancer utilizing neoadjuvant doxorubicin followed by mastectomy, CMF, and radiotherapy.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Women with biopsy-proven, clinical stage III breast cancer and adequate organ function were eligible. Neoadjuvant doxorubicin (30 mg/m(2) days 1-3, every 28 days for 4 cycles) was followed by mastectomy, in stable or responding patients. Sixteen weeks of postoperative CMF followed (continuous oral cyclophosphamide (2 mg/kg/day); methotrexate (0.7 mg/kg IV) and fluorouracil (12 mg/kg IV) weekly, weeks 1-8, and than biweekly, weeks 9-16). Radiation therapy followed adjuvant chemotherapy.
RESULTS: Clinical response rate was 71% (79/111, 95% CI = 62-79%), with 19% complete clinical response. Pathologic complete response was 5% (95% CI = 2-11%). Median follow-up is 15.6 years. Half of the patients progressed by 2.2 years; half died by 5.4 years (range 6 months-15 years). The hazard of dying was greatest in the first 5 years after diagnosis and declined thereafter. Time to progression and overall survival were predicted by number of pathologically involved lymph nodes (TTP: HR [10 vs. 1 node]2.40, 95% CI = 1.63-3.53, P<0.0001; OS: HR 2.50, 95% CI = 1.74-3.58, P<0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS: After multimodality treatment for locally advanced breast cancer, long-term survival was correlated with the number of pathologically positive lymph nodes, but not to clinical response. The hazard of death was highest during the first 5 years after diagnosis and declined thereafter, indicating a possible intermediate endpoint for future trials of neoadjuvant treatment.
Duke University Medical Center, Duke South, Durham, NC 27710, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
The use of alternate, non-cross-resistant adjuvant chemotherapy on the basis of pathologic response to a neoadjuvant doxorubicin-based regimen in women with operable breast cancer: long-term results from a prospective randomized trial.
Thomas E, Holmes FA, Smith TL, Buzdar AU, Frye DK, Fraschini G, Singletary SE, Theriault RL, McNeese MD, Ames F, Walters R, Hortobagyi GN
J Clin Oncol. 2004;22(12):2294.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the use of an alternate, non-cross-resistant adjuvant chemotherapy regimen in women with a poor pathologic response to a preoperative doxorubicin-based regimen.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with locally advanced breast cancer received three cycles of vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and prednisone (VACP) every 21 days followed by surgery. Patients with less than 1 cm(3) residual tumor at mastectomy received an additional five cycles of VACP. Those with more than 1 cm(3) residual tumor were randomly assigned to receive an additional five cycles of VACP or five cycles of vinblastine, methotrexate with calcium leucovorin rescue, and fluorouracil (VbMF).
RESULTS: One hundred ninety-three patients were evaluable. Overall clinical response was seen in 83.4% after three cycles of VACP, whereas the pathologic complete response was 12.2%. One hundred six patients were randomly assigned to VACP or VbMF. Those receiving VbMF achieved higher relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) than those who received additional VACP, although the differences did not reach statistical significance. Initial stage of tumor, clinical complete response, and pathologic complete response were all associated with statistically superior survival rates.
CONCLUSION: Clinical and pathologic response to preoperative doxorubicin-based chemotherapy predicted for improved survival in women with operable breast cancer. For those with a poor response to initial neoadjuvant chemotherapy, treatment with VbMF was associated with a trend toward improved RFS and OS compared with those continuing with the doxorubicin regimen.
The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA. email@example.com
Phase 2 trial of primary systemic therapy with doxorubicin and docetaxel followed by surgery, radiotherapy, and adjuvant chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil based on clinical and pathologic response in patients with stage IIB to III breast cancer : long-term results from the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Study ID97-099.
Alvarez RH, Booser DJ, Cristofanilli M, Sahin AA, Strom EA, Guerra L, Kau SW, Gonzalez-Angulo AM, Hortobagyi GN, Valero V
BACKGROUND: This study was performed to evaluate the outcomes of patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) who were treated with a multidisciplinary approach including primary systemic chemotherapy and noncross-resistant adjuvant chemotherapy.
METHODS: Patients with LABC received 4 or 6 cycles of doxorubicin and docetaxel (DT) as primary systemic chemotherapy (PST) every 21 days. Patients with adequate response underwent surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy according to pathologic response: complete (pCR), 2 more cycles of DT; partial (pPR), 2 more cycles of DT followed by 6 cycles of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (CMF); and minor (pMR), 6 cycles of CMF. Patients then received radiation and tamoxifen (hormone receptor-positive patients only).
RESULTS: Eighty-eight patients were evaluable. Seventy-four patients had an adequate response to DT and were considered operable, and 72 underwent surgery. Ten patients (13.9%) achieved a pCR, 22 (30.5%) achieved a pPR, and 40 achieved a pMR (55.5%). Fourteen patients were considered nonoperable after DT and underwent salvage CMF therapy. Five of these patients underwent surgery and 1 had achieved a pCR. The estimated 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates for patients with pCR, pPR, and pMR were 80%, 77%, and 59%, respectively, and the estimated 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 90%, 91%, and 74%, respectively. The 5-year OS rates were 82% for initially operable and 21% for initially inoperable patients (P<or = .001)
CONCLUSIONS: Multidisciplinary therapy that includes PST with DT and adjuvant therapy with CMF administered according to the clinical and pathologic response is associated with high long-term RFS and OS rates in patients with LABC. Clinical or pathologic PR or CR to DT predicts improved RFS and OS.
Department of Breast Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.