Medline ® Abstracts for References 11-13
of 'Adjuvant chemotherapy for HER2-negative breast cancer'
Prognosis and treatment of patients with breast tumors of one centimeter or less and negative axillary lymph nodes.
Fisher B, Dignam J, Tan-Chiu E, Anderson S, Fisher ER, Wittliff JL, Wolmark N
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001;93(2):112.
BACKGROUND: Uncertainty about prognosis and treatment of axillary lymph node-negative patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative or ER-positive invasive breast tumors of 1 cm or less prompted the analysis of data from five National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project randomized clinical trials.
METHODS: Two hundred thirty-five patients with ER-negative tumors and 1024 patients with ER-positive tumors were identified in these trials. Patients with ER-negative tumors received surgery alone or surgery and chemotherapy. Patients with ER-positive tumors received surgery alone; surgery and tamoxifen; or surgery, tamoxifen, and chemotherapy. End points were relapse-free survival (RFS), event-free survival, and overall survival. A result was considered to be statistically significant with a P value of.05 or less; all statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: The 8-year RFS of women with ER-negative tumors who received surgery alone or with chemotherapy was 81% and 90%, respectively (P = .06). Survival was similar in both groups (93% and 91%; P = .65).The 8-year RFS of women with ER-positive tumors was 86% after surgery alone, 93% when tamoxifen was added (P = .01), and 95% after the addition of tamoxifen and chemotherapy (P = .07 compared with tamoxifen). Survival in the three groups was 90%, 92% (P = .41), and 97%, respectively. The difference between the latter two groups was significant (P = .01). Regardless of ER status or treatment, overall mortality was 8%; one half of the deaths were related to breast cancer. Several covariates affected the risk of recurrence in ER-negative and ER-positive patients. Risk was greater in women with tumors of 1 cm than in those with tumors of less than 1 cm, in women aged 49 years or younger than in those aged 50 years or older, and in women with infiltrating ductal or lobular carcinoma than in those with other histologic tumor types.
CONCLUSIONS: Chemotherapy and/or tamoxifen should be considered for the treatment of women with ER-negative or ER-positive tumors of 1 cm or less and negative axillary lymph nodes.
B. Fisher, National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP), Pittsburgh, PA, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Pathological prognostic factors in stage I (T1N0M0) and stage II (T1N1M0) breast carcinoma: a study of 644 patients with median follow-up of 18 years.
Rosen PP, Groshen S, Saigo PE, Kinne DW, Hellman S
J Clin Oncol. 1989;7(9):1239.
Prognostic factors have been examined in 644 patients with tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage T1 breast carcinoma treated by mastectomy and followed for a median of 18.2 years. Overall, 148 patients (23%) died of recurrent breast carcinoma. Eighteen (3%) were alive with recurrent disease and 478 (74%) were alive or died of other causes without recurrence. Unfavorable clinicopathologic features were larger tumor size (1.1 to 2.0 cm v less than or equal to 1 cm), perimenopausal menstrual status, the number of axillary lymph node metastases, poorly differentiated grade, presence of lymphatic tumor emboli (LI) in breast tissue near the primary tumor, blood vessel invasion (BVI), and an intense lymphoplasmacytic reaction around the tumor. Median survival after recurrence for the entire series was 2 years. This was not significantly influenced by tumor size, the number of axillary nodal metastases, the type of treatment for recurrence, or the interval to recurrence. The proportions surviving 5 and 10 years after recurrence were 17% and 5%, respectively. Among T1N0M0 cases, the chance of a local recurrence was 2.8% within 20 years. Median survival of T1N0M0 cases after local recurrence (4.5 years) was significantly longer than after systemic recurrence (1.5 years). A similar trend (3.7 v 2.0 years), not statistically significant, was seen in T1N1M0 patients, whohad a 6.5% chance of local recurrence within 20 years. Median survival following systemic recurrence detected 10 or more years after diagnosis in T1N0M0 and in T1N1M0 patients was significantly longer than the median survival for systemic recurrences found in the first decade of follow-up. This difference did not apply following local recurrence in either T1N0M0 or T1N1M0 cases. It is evident that patients with T1 breast carcinoma can be subdivided into differing prognostic groups and this must be taken into account when considering the role of adjuvant chemotherapy for stage I disease. Systemic adjuvant treatment may prove to be beneficial for patients with unfavorable prognostic factors, while women with an especially low risk for recurrence (eg, T1N0M0 tumor 1.0 cm or less) might be spared such treatment.
Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021.
Population-based validation of the prognostic model ADJUVANT! for early breast cancer.
Olivotto IA, Bajdik CD, Ravdin PM, Speers CH, Coldman AJ, Norris BD, Davis GJ, Chia SK, Gelmon KA
J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(12):2716.
PURPOSE: Adjuvant! (www.adjuvantonline.com) is a web-based tool that predicts 10-year breast cancer outcomes with and without adjuvant systemic therapy, but it has not been independently validated.
METHODS: Using the British Columbia Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit (BCOU) database, demographic, pathologic, staging, and treatment data on 4,083 women diagnosed between 1989 and 1993 in British Columbia with T1-2, N0-1, M0 breast cancer were abstracted and entered into Adjuvant! to calculate predicted 10-year overall survival (OS), breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS), and event-free survival (EFS) for each patient. Individual BCOU observed outcomes at 10 years were independently determined. Predicted and observed outcomes were compared.
RESULTS: Across all 4,083 patients, 10-year predicted and observed outcomes were within 1% for OS, BCSS, and EFS (all P>.05). Predicted and observed outcomes were within 2% for most demographic, pathologic, and treatment-defined subgroups. Adjuvant! overestimated OS, BCSS, and EFS in women younger than age 35 years (predicted-observed = 8.6%, 9.6%, and 13.6%, respectively; all P<.001) or with lymphatic or vascular invasion (LVI; predicted-observed = 3.6%, 3.8%, and 4.2%, respectively; all P<.05); these two prognostic factors were not automatically incorporated within the Adjuvant! algorithm. After adjusting for the distribution of LVI, using the prognostic factor impact calculator in Adjuvant!, 10-year predicted and observed outcomes were no longer significantly different.
CONCLUSION: Adjuvant! performed reliably. Patients younger than age 35 or with known additional adverse prognostic factors such as LVI require adjustment of risks to derive reliable predictions of prognosis without adjuvant systemic therapy and the absolute benefits of adjuvant systemic therapy.
Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, Vancouver Island Centre, 2410 Lee Avenue, Victoria, BC V8R 6V5, Canada. email@example.com