Acute pericarditis: Clinical presentation and diagnostic evaluation
- Massimo Imazio, MD, FESC
Massimo Imazio, MD, FESC
- Professor of Physiology
- University Division of Cardiology, Department of Medical Sciences, AOU Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino.
- Department of Public Health and Pediatrics, University of Torino.
The pericardium is a fibroelastic sac made up of visceral and parietal layers separated by a (potential) space, the pericardial cavity. In healthy individuals, the pericardial cavity contains 15 to 50 mL of an ultrafiltrate of plasma.
Diseases of the pericardium present clinically in one of several ways :
●Acute and recurrent pericarditis
●Pericardial effusion without major hemodynamic compromise
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- CLINICAL FEATURES
- Determination of risk and need for hospitalization
- Chest pain
- Pericardial friction rub
- - ECG differentiation from acute myocardial infarction
- - ECG differentiation from early repolarization
- DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION
- Our approach to diagnostic testing
- - Echocardiogram
- - Chest x-ray
- - Cardiac biomarkers
- - Signs of inflammation
- - CMR and/or CT
- Pericardiocentesis and pericardial biopsy
- Establishing a definite etiology
- INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS