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Acute otitis media in children: Epidemiology, microbiology, clinical manifestations, and complications

Jerome O Klein, MD
Stephen Pelton, MD
Section Editors
Sheldon L Kaplan, MD
Glenn C Isaacson, MD, FAAP
Deputy Editor
Mary M Torchia, MD


Acute otitis media (AOM) is defined by moderate to severe bulging of the tympanic membrane (TM) or new onset of otorrhea not due to acute otitis externa accompanied by acute signs of illness and signs or symptoms of middle ear inflammation [1]. (See "Acute otitis media in children: Diagnosis", section on 'Acute otitis media'.)

The epidemiology and microbiology of AOM in the United States have been influenced by several factors, including:

Introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in 2000 and the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 2010

Publication of guidelines by the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) in 2004 and updated in 2013, which provided detailed diagnostic criteria for AOM [1,2]

The educational campaign of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other authoritative groups to influence parents and clinicians to avoid inappropriate usage of antimicrobial agents for uncertain diagnoses of AOM [3]

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Literature review current through: Sep 2017. | This topic last updated: Sep 07, 2017.
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