Medline ® Abstract for Reference 34
of 'Acute kidney injury (AKI) in minimal change disease and other forms of nephrotic syndrome'
Nephrosclerosis: update on a centenarian.
Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2015 Nov;30(11):1833-41. Epub 2014 Dec 8.
Nephrosclerosis is an umbrella term defining changes in all compartments of the kidney, changes caused by hypertension and by ageing. Among other lesions, arteriolosclerosis and arteriolohyalinosis play a major role in inducing glomerular ischaemic shrinking and sclerosis along with glomerulomegaly and focal-segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). These lesions are accompanied by tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis that predict the decline of renal function. Nephrosclerosis is a major cause of renal insufficiency in blacks of African descent with a severe, early form of renovasculopathy and a rapid course to renal failure with predominant lesions of FSGS. It seems that in blacks, separate genetic factors independently lead to vascular lesions and to hypertension with a different time-scale of their onset and of their progression, nephroangiosclerosis preceding the onset of hypertension. Conversely, true and histologically identified nephrosclerosis in white Europeans rarely leads to end-stage renal disease in the absence of malignant hypertension. Various animal models demonstrate that renal vascular lesions may exist in the absence of hypertension. These experiments also point to a major role of angiotensin II and of a number of independent and overlapping cellular and molecular pathways in a cascade of inflammatory events that end in renal fibrosis. Two pathophysiologic mechanisms are at work in inducingglomerular lesions and tubulointerstitial fibrosis: a loss of autoregulation of the renal blood flow caused by an arteriolohyalinosis of the glomerular afferent arteriole and ischaemia that fosters the generation of hypoxia inducible-fibrosing factors. Not all antihypertensive drugs equally protect the kidney from nephrosclerosis. Angiotensin II antagonists exert a favourable effect on hyperfiltration. Conversely, dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers and vasodilators do not withstand the derangement of renal autoregulation.
UniversitéParis-Descartes, Paris, France Département de Néphrologie, Hôpital Georges Pompidou (AP-HP), Paris, France.