Acute cystitis: Clinical features and diagnosis in children older than two years and adolescents
- Debra L Palazzi, MD, MEd
Debra L Palazzi, MD, MEd
- Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Infectious Diseases Section
- Baylor College of Medicine
- Judith R Campbell, MD
Judith R Campbell, MD
- Professor of Pediatric Infectious Diseases
- Baylor College of Medicine
- Section Editors
- Tej K Mattoo, MD, DCH, FRCP
Tej K Mattoo, MD, DCH, FRCP
- Section Editor — Pediatric Nephrology
- Professor of Pediatrics
- Wayne State University School of Medicine
- Sheldon L Kaplan, MD
Sheldon L Kaplan, MD
- Editor-in-Chief — Pediatrics
- Section Editor — Pediatric Infectious Diseases
- Professor and Vice Chairman for Clinical Affairs
- Baylor College of Medicine
Cystitis is inflammation of the urinary bladder, usually caused by infection, which can occur alone or in conjunction with pyelonephritis.
The clinical features and diagnosis of acute cystitis in children older than two years and adolescents will be reviewed here. The management and prognosis of acute cystitis in children older than two years and adolescents is discussed separately. (See "Acute cystitis: Management and prognosis in children older than two years and adolescents".)
Urinary tract infection (UTI) in newborns and children younger than two years (in whom it is difficult to distinguish cystitis from pyelonephritis on clinical grounds) also is discussed separately.
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- Uncomplicated cystitis
- Complicated cystitis
- RISK FACTORS
- CLINICAL PRESENTATION
- Physical examination
- Laboratory evaluation
- Clinical suspicion
- Urine culture
- - Bacterial culture
- - Viral culture
- - Fungal culture
- DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
- EVALUATION FOR UNDERLYING ABNORMALITIES
- INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS